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Disease Profile

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

-

ICD-10

G60.8

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy; HSAN

Summary

Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) is a group of rare peripheral neuropathies where neurons and/or axons are affected.[1] The major feature of these conditions is the loss of large myelinated and unmyelinated fibers.[2] Myelin is an insulating layer, or sheath that forms around nerves, made up of protein and fatty substances, that allows electrical impulses to transmit along the nerve cells. If myelin is damaged, these impulses slow down. Symptoms of HSAN include diminished sensation of pain and its associated consequences of delayed healing, Charcot arthopathies, infections, osteomyelitis, and amputations.[1][2] They have been categorized into types one through five, although some children do not fit well into this classification and do not all have altered pain sensation and/or autonomic function.[3] HSAN type I is the most common form of HSAN. It is caused by a mutation in the SPTLC1 gene and inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. HSAN type 2 is caused by mutations in the WNK1 gene and inheritance is autosomal recessive . HSAN type 3 (Riley-Day syndrome or familial dysautonomia) is caused by mutations in the IKBKAP gene and inheritance is autosomal recessive. HSAN type 4, also called congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA), is caused by mutations in the NTRK1 gene and is an autosomal recessive disorder. HSAN type 5 is caused by mutations in the NGFB gene and inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.[1][2]

Organizations

Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

    Learn more

    These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

    In-Depth Information

    • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
    • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) lists the subtypes and associated genes for Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy in a table called Phenotypic Series. Each entry in OMIM includes a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
    • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.

      References

      1. Cruse RP. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies. UpToDate. October 2015;
      2. Hereditory Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathies (HSAN). Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network (RDCRN). https://www.rarediseasesnetwork.org/INC/professional/disorders/HSAN/.
      3. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V. Genetics Home Reference. July 2011; https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/hereditary-sensory-and-autonomic-neuropathy-type-v.