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Disease Profile

Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
1-9 / 1 000 000

331 - 2,979

US Estimated

1-9 / 1 000 000

514 - 4,622

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

Childhood

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ICD-10

D59.6

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

PCH; Hemoglobinuria paroxysmal cold

Categories

Blood Diseases

Summary

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.
orphanet

Orpha Number: 90035

Definition
Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) is a very rare subtype of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA, see this term), caused by the presence of cold-reacting autoantibodies in the blood and characterized by the sudden presence of hemoglobinuria, typically after exposure to cold temperatures.

Epidemiology
PCH is thought to account for at most 2-10% of cases of AIHA, whose annual incidence is estimated to be between 1/35,000-1/80,000 in North America and Western Europe.

Clinical description
Acute cases almost exclusively affect children and are often preceded by symptoms of infection. Chronic idiopathic cases also occur but are extremely rare. Acute cases of the disease are characterized by an abrupt onset with features of severe intravascular hemolysis including high fever, chills, back and/or leg pain. Other symptoms may include nausea, headache, vomiting and diarrhea. Typically hemoglobinuria occurs, producing dark red to black urine. Hemolysis can be severe and even life-threatening and results from exposure to cold, which may even be localized (eg from drinking cold water, from washing hands in cold water). Chronic forms of PCH are characterized by recurrent episodes of hemolysis precipitated by cold exposure.

Etiology
PCH is most often acute and occurs secondary to an infection, mainly upper respiratory, and the causative agent is often not identified. Late-stage or congenital syphilis was historically linked to cases of PCH in adulthood but this is becoming less and less common.

Diagnostic methods
Diagnosis is based on evidence of anemia linked to hemolysis, the presence of hemoglobin in urine, a positive result from the Donath-Landsteiner (DL) test and evidence of anti-P specificity of the IgG autoantibodies.

Differential diagnosis
The main differential diagnosis is acute cold AIHA (see this term) induced by an infection (for example Mycoplasma pneumoniae or the Epstein Barr virus) due to the presence of IgM autoantibodies which are cold agglutinins.

Management and treatment
Most cases of PCH are self-limited so treatment is usually symptomatic, including keeping the patient warm and red blood cell transfusion if necessary. Patients with few clinical symptoms and slight anemia may not require drug therapy. Corticosteroids and splenectomy are usually ineffective and should not be considered. In cases of life-threatening PCH, plasmapheresis can temporarily dampen the hemolysis. Some patients may respond to rituximab, although responses are usually short-lived. If syphilis is present, treatment with antibiotics generally eliminates the concurrent hemolysis.

Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Abnormal urinary color
Abnormal urinary colour
Abnormal urine color

[ more ]

0012086
Arthralgia
Joint pain
0002829
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
0001890
Back pain
0003418
Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia
0004844
Fever
0001945
Headache
Headaches
0002315
Hemoglobinuria
Hemoglobin in urine
0003641
Recurrent respiratory infections
Frequent respiratory infections
Multiple respiratory infections
respiratory infections, recurrent
Susceptibility to respiratory infections

[ more ]

0002205
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Diarrhea
Watery stool
0002014
Nausea and vomiting
0002017

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Where to Start

  • MedlinePlus was designed by the National Library of Medicine to help you research your health questions, and it provides more information about this topic.
  • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.

In-Depth Information

  • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.