Rare Oncology News

Disease Profile

Plasma cell leukemia

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset






Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

Leukemia, plasma cell


Rare Cancers


Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and aggressive form of multiple myeloma that involves high levels of plasma cells circulating in the peripheral blood. The signs and symptoms of PCL include aggressive clinical features, such as extramedullary disease, bone marrow failure, advanced stage disease and expression of distinct immunophenotypic markers.[1] Different types of treatments are available for patients with PCL. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. For detailed information on the available treatment options, please visit the following link. https://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/myeloma/Patient/page4

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Where to Start

  • The National Cancer Institute provides the most current information on cancer for patients, health professionals, and the general public.

In-Depth Information

  • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Plasma cell leukemia. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.


  1. Michaela Liedtke, Bruno C Medeiros. Plasma Cell Leukemia: Concepts and Management. Expert Rev Hematol. 2010; 3(5):543-549. https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/731900_1. Accessed 2/19/2014.