Rare Oncology News

Disease Profile

Warm antibody hemolytic anemia

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.
1-9 / 100 000

3,310 - 29,790

US Estimated

1-9 / 100 000

5,135 - 46,215

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

All ages

ageofonset-all.svg

ICD-10

D59.1

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

no.svg

Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

no.svg

X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

no.svg

X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

no.svg

Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

no.svg

Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

rnn-multigenetic.svg

Not applicable

no.svg

Other names (AKA)

Warm-reacting-antibody hemolytic anemia; Warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia; Warm antibody AIHA

Categories

Autoimmune / Autoinflammatory diseases; Blood Diseases

Summary

Warm antibody hemolytic anemia is the most common form of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. It is defined by the presence of autoantibodies that attach to and destroy red blood cells at temperatures equal to or greater than normal body temperature.[1][2] The disease is characterized by symptoms related to anemia, including fatigue, difficulty breathing, jaundice and dark urine. In severe disease, fever, chest pain, syncope or heart failure may occur. Hemolysis (the breakdown of red blood cells) occurs mainly in the spleen, so mild splenomegaly is relatively common. Treatment typically involves a corticosteroid like prednisone. In cases that don't respond to treatment, splenectomy may be considered. Chronic and severe disease may be treated with Rituximab or immunosuppressive medications. [2]

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
0001890
Exertional dyspnea
0002875
Fatigue
Tired
Tiredness

[ more ]

0012378
Headache
Headaches
0002315
Pallor
0000980
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Arthralgia
Joint pain
0002829
Lymphoproliferative disorder
0005523
Splenomegaly
Increased spleen size
0001744
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Abnormal urinary color
Abnormal urinary colour
Abnormal urine color

[ more ]

0012086
Chronic lymphatic leukemia
0005550
Congestive heart failure
Cardiac failure
Cardiac failures
Heart failure

[ more ]

0001635
Fever
0001945
Jaundice
Yellow skin
Yellowing of the skin

[ more ]

0000952
Systemic lupus erythematosus
0002725
Tachycardia
Fast heart rate
Heart racing
Racing heart

[ more ]

0001649

Organizations

Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Providing General Support

    Learn more

    These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

    Where to Start

    • The Merck Manuals Online Medical Library provides information on this condition for patients and caregivers.
    • The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) has information on this topic. NHLBI is part of the National Institutes of Health and supports research, training, and education for the prevention and treatment of heart, lung, and blood diseases.
    • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.

      In-Depth Information

      • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
      • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.

        References

        1. Lichtin AE. Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia. Merck Manual. 2016; https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/blood-disorders/anemia/autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia.
        2. Michel M. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, warm type. Orphanet. August 2012; https://www.orpha.net/consor/cgi-bin/OC_Exp.php?lng=EN&Expert=90033. Accessed 12/19/2012.